This problem set was developed by AKYU
The following outline is to help you decide how to name a chemical compound. Use it as a flow chart to break down the different systems of naming to determine the name of a compound.
Formulas and Names of Binary Metal-Nonmetal Compounds
- The name of the metal is first (ie: NaCl, sodium chloride)
- The name of the nonmetal has -ide added (ie: NaCl sodium chloride)
- IF the metal has more than one possible charge
- With the Stock Method you must indicate which ion using the charge in roman numerals (ie: FeCl2 Iron (II) chloride).
- Alternatively the common name may be used if the metal has more than one possible ion. Here use the Latin root and then add -ous for the lower charge. -icfor the higher charge.
- FeCl2 ferrous chloride
- FeCl3 ferric chloride
- More examples showing the two different systems:
Compound Stock Method Common Name FeF2 iron (II) fluoride ferrous fluoride FeF3 iron (III)fluoride ferric fluoride Hg2Br2 mercury (I) bromide mercurous bromide HgBr2 mercury (II) bromide mercuric bromide
Formulas and Names of Binary Nonmetal-Nonmetal Compounds
- Systematic Nomenclature:
- For names start with element to the left side on the periodic table
- add -ide to the second element
- use Greek prefixes for number of atoms: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
- CO carbon monoxide
- CO2 carbon dioxide
- N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide
- Common names: -ous and -ic (-ic has greater charge, OR has fewer atoms). Examples:
Formula Systematic Name Common Name NO nitrogen monoxide nitric oxide N2O dinitrogen monoxide nitrous oxide NO2 nitrogen dioxide nitrogen peroxide N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide nitric anhydride N2O3 dinitrogen trioxide nitrous anhydride
- Names of Polyatomic Ions
- Anions are negative, Cations are positive
- ammonium ion NH41+
- CN1- cyanide
- OH1- hydroxide
- -ate ate more oxygen.
Formula Name NO21- nitrite NO31- nitrate
- Sometimes oxyanions have an extra hydrogen
Formula Name SO42- sulfate HSO41- hydrogen sulfate (or bisulfate)
- If more than two possibilities:
Formula Name ClO1- hypochlorite ClO21- chlorite ClO31- chlorate ClO41- perchlorate
- -ate ate more oxygen.
- Naming compounds with polyatomic ions
- Positive charge species on left (using Stock method or common name)
- Negative charge species on right (using name of polyatomic ion)
- Use parentheses as needed
Formula Ions Name BaSO4 Ba2+ and SO42- barium sulfate Ca(NO3)2 Ca+2 and NO31- calcium nitrate Ca(NO2)2 Ca+2 and NO21- calcium nitrite Fe(NO3)2 Fe2+ and NO31- iron (II) nitrate or
- Hydro Acids: Hydro + halogen name + ic
Formula Name HCl hydrochloric acid HF hydrofluoric acid
- OxoAcids: polyatomic ion + acid.
- Recognize as polyatomic ions with a hydrogen at the beginning of the formula.
- Name with -ous and -ic suffix. (Works just like -ite and -ate suffix)
- -ic suffix is for acid with more oxygen atoms.
Formula Name Source HNO3 nitric acid nitric from nitrate HNO2 nitrous acid nitrous from nitrite
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Hints for solving Stoichiometry Problems
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First the hamburger analogy
My recipe for a bacon double cheeseburger is:
- 1 hamburger bun
- 2 hamburger patties
- 2 slices of cheese
- 4 strips of bacon
Based on this recipe:
- If I have five bacon double cheeseburgers:
- How many hamburger buns do I have?
- How many hamburger patties do I have?
- How many slices of cheese do I have?
- How many strips of bacon do I have?
- How many bacon double cheeseburgers can you make if you start with:
- 1 bun, 2 patties, 2 slices of cheese, 4 strips of bacon
- 2 bun, 4 patties, 4 slices of cheese, 8 strips of bacon
- 1 dozen bun, 2 dozen patties, 2 dozen slices of cheese, 4 dozen strips of bacon
- 1 mole bun, 2 mole patties, 2 mole slices of cheese, 4 mole strips of bacon
- 10 bun, 20 patties, 2 slices of cheese, 40 strips of bacon
- If you had fixings for 100 bacon double cheeseburgers, but when you were cooking you ruined 10 of them. What percentage of the bacon double cheeseburgers do you actually make?
Now, the chemistry problem.
NOTE: The math and the concepts are identical to the above example. The only difference is the recipe.
Here are two examples of chemical recipes:
- Na+ + Cl– -> NaCl
- 1 mole of H2SO4 + 2 mole NaOH produce 1 mole Na2SO4 + 2 mole H2O
Based on the recipes above:
- If I have 1 mole of NaCl
- How many moles of sodium do I have?
- How many moles of Chloride do I have?
- If I want to make 5 moles of Na2SO4:
- How many moles of H2SO4 do I need?
- How many moles of NaOH do I need?
- How much Na2SO4can I make if I have:
- 1 mole of H2SO4 and 2 mole of NaOH
- 10 mole of H2SO4 and 20 mole of NaOH
- 0.1 mole of H2SO4 and 0.2 mole of NaOH
- 1 mole of H2SO4 and 20 mole of NaOH
- 0.42 mole of H2SO4 and 0.65 mole of NaOH
- 5 grams of H2SO4 and 5 grams of NaOH